THOUSAND FACES. Commemorative Edition, with an Introduction by Clarissa Pinkola Estes, Ph.D. Joseph Campbell's classic cross- cultural study of the hero's . Since its release in ,The Hero with a Thousand Faces has influenced millions of readers by combining the insights of modern psychology with Joseph Campbell's revolutionary understanding of comparative mythology. In these pages, Campbell outlines the Hero's Journey, a universal. The Hero with a Thousand Faces (first published in ) is a seminal work of comparative mythology by Joseph Campbell. In this book, Campbell discusses his.
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Get this from a library! The hero with a thousand faces.. [Joseph Campbell]. The hero with a thousand faces by Joseph Campbell, , Princeton University Press edition, in English - [2d ed. Since its release in , The Hero with a Thousand Faces has influenced millions of readers by combining the insights of modern psychology with Joseph .
Bribery, deceit, threats—at one time or another, my patients have tried them all. In their version of the narrative I am uninterested, prejudiced, greedy, or lazy. There must be some reason that I am not curing them, and the idea that I am powerless seems the least likely explanation.
Once they have cast themselves as Jason, it is no good telling them that there is no Golden Fleece to win. I am stuck with the role assigned to me by their narrative. In my own story, I am more like the Wizard of Oz.
My patients have come a long way down the yellow brick road and overcome many obstacles in order to have a personal audience with me. They have done so in the belief that I am the only one with the power to restore their world to the way it should be and to get them back to Kansas.
And yet I know that I have no magical powers and cannot live up to their expectations. Like the Wizard, I have choices. I could set them an unachievable task so that failure is their fault. I could stall with smoke and mirrors.
While at Dartmouth College he studied biology and mathematics, but decided that he preferred the humanities. He transferred to Columbia University , where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in English literature in and a Master of Arts degree in medieval literature in At Dartmouth he had joined Delta Tau Delta.
An accomplished athlete, he received awards in track and field events, and, for a time, was among the fastest half-mile runners in the world. On the ship during his return trip he encountered the messiah elect of the Theosophical Society , Jiddu Krishnamurti ; they discussed Indian philosophy , sparking in Campbell an interest in Hindu and Indian thought.
He learned to read and speak French and German. Lacking faculty approval, Campbell withdrew from graduate studies. Later in life he jested that it is a sign of incompetence to have a PhD in the liberal arts , the discipline covering his work.
He later said that he "would divide the day into four four-hour periods, of which I would be reading in three of the four-hour periods, and free one of them I would get nine hours of sheer reading done a day.
And this went on for five years straight. Campbell was introduced to the Steinbecks by author and early nutritionist Adelle Davis whom he met and developed a close relationship with on a cruise to the Caribbean with his father in December Campbell, the great chronicler of the "hero's journey" in mythology , recognized patterns that paralleled his own thinking in one of Ricketts's unpublished philosophical essays. In , he married one of his former students, the dancer-choreographer Jean Erdman.
For most of their 49 years of marriage they shared a two-room apartment in Greenwich Village in New York City. In the s they also downloadd an apartment in Honolulu and divided their time between the two cities. They did not have any children. After Zimmer's death, Campbell was given the task of editing and posthumously publishing Zimmer's papers, which he would do over the following decade.
In —, as the last volume of Zimmer's posthumous The Art of Indian Asia, Its Mythology and Transformations was finally about to be published, Campbell took a sabbatical from Sarah Lawrence College and traveled, for the first time, to Asia. This year had a profound influence on his thinking about Asian religion and myth, and also on the necessity for teaching comparative mythology to a larger, non-academic audience. Later life and death[ edit ] Campbell attended a Grateful Dead concert in , and marveled that "Everyone has just lost themselves in everybody else here!
He is buried in O'ahu Cemetery, Honolulu. Influences[ edit ] Art, literature, philosophy[ edit ] Campbell often referred to the work of modern writers James Joyce and Thomas Mann in his lectures and writings, as well as to the art of Pablo Picasso. He was introduced to their work during his stay as a graduate student in Paris.
Campbell eventually corresponded with Mann. Moyers: Not in a long time. Campbell: Remember the last line? Campbell was also influenced by the psychological work of Abraham Maslow and Stanislav Grof. Campbell's ideas regarding myth and its relation to the human psyche are dependent in part on the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud , but in particular on the work of Jung, whose studies of human psychology greatly influenced Campbell.
Campbell's conception of myth is closely related to the Jungian method of dream interpretation, which is heavily reliant on symbolic interpretation.
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Jung's insights into archetypes were heavily influenced by the Bardo Thodol also known as The Tibetan Book of the Dead. In his book The Mythic Image, Campbell quotes Jung's statement about the Bardo Thodol, that it belongs to that class of writings which not only are of interest to specialists in Mahayana Buddhism , but also, because of their deep humanity and still deeper insight into the secrets of the human psyche, make an especial appeal to the layman seeking to broaden his knowledge of life For years, ever since it was first published, the Bardo Thodol has been my constant companion, and to it I owe not only many stimulating ideas and discoveries, but also many fundamental insights.
So it depends on how much you want to think about it. Whether it's doing you any good. Whether it is putting you in touch with the mystery that's the ground of your own being.
If it isn't, well, it's a lie. So half the people in the world are religious people who think that their metaphors are facts.
Those are what we call theists.
The other half are people who know that the metaphors are not facts. And so, they're lies. Those are the atheists. According to Robert Ellwood , "A tendency to think in generic terms of people, races These appear at the end of his work The Masks of God: Creative Mythology, as well as various lectures. Symbols and mythic metaphors on the other hand point outside themselves and into that reality. They are what Campbell called "being statements"  and their enactment through ritual can give to the participant a sense of that ultimate mystery as an experience.
The first function of mythology is to reconcile waking consciousness to the mysterium tremendum et fascinans of this universe as it is. The Sociological Function Validate and support the existing social order Ancient societies had to conform to an existing social order if they were to survive at all.
This is because they evolved under "pressure" from necessities much more intense than the ones encountered in our modern world.
Mythology confirmed that order and enforced it by reflecting it into the stories themselves, often describing how the order arrived from divine intervention. Campbell often referred to these "conformity" myths as the "Right Hand Path" to reflect the brain's left hemisphere's abilities for logic, order and linearity.
Together with these myths however, he observed the existence of the "Left Hand Path", mythic patterns like the "Hero's Journey" which are revolutionary in character in that they demand from the individual a surpassing of social norms and sometimes even of morality. Myth may serve as a guide for successful passage through the stages of one's life.
Evolution of myth[ edit ] Campbell's view of mythology was by no means static and his books describe in detail how mythologies evolved through time, reflecting the realities in which each society had to adjust. In brief these are: The Way of the Animal Powers Hunting and gathering societies At this stage of evolution religion was animistic , as all of nature was seen as being infused with a spirit or divine presence. At center stage was the main hunting animal of that culture, whether the buffalo for Native Americans or the eland for South African tribes, and a large part of religion focused on dealing with the psychological tension that came from the reality of the necessity to kill versus the divinity of the animal.
This was done by presenting the animals as springing from an eternal archetypal source and coming to this world as willing victims, with the understanding that their lives would be returned to the soil or to the Mother through a ritual of restoration. The story tells of a time when the buffalos stopped coming to the hunting plains, leaving the tribe to starve.
The chief's daughter promises to marry the buffalo chief in return for their reappearance, but is eventually spared and taught the buffalo dance by the animals themselves, through which the spirits of their dead will return to their eternal life source. Indeed, Campbell taught that throughout history mankind has held a belief that all life comes from and returns to another dimension which transcends temporality, but which can be reached through ritual.
The Way of the Seeded Earth Early agrarian societies Beginning in the fertile grasslands of the Levant and the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia in the Bronze Age and moving to Europe, the practice of agriculture spread along with a new way of understanding mankind's relationship to the world. At this time the earth was seen as the Mother, and the myths focused around Her life-giving powers.
The plant and cultivation cycle was mirrored in religious rituals which often included human sacrifice, symbolic or literal. At this time the focus was to participate in the repetitive rhythm the world moved in expressed as the four seasons, the birth and death of crops and the phases of the moon.
The Hero With a Thousand Faces
At the center of this motion was the Mother Goddess from whom all life springs and to whom all life returns. This often gave Her a dual aspect as both mother and destroyer.All rights reserved.
The Templars. C28 Must read to learn more about philosophy and thought.
Joseph Campbell. Hero with a thousand faces. United States: Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. Nicholas Ribush. This demotion was very profound in the case of the biblical imagery where the female elements were marginalized to an extreme.