VDU. ○ The computer screen is used for outputting information in an understandable format. ○ Printers. ○ There are many different types of printers. ○ In large. and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or other . into two major categories: system software that provides the basic non-. Computer Basics. Student Edition Lesson Hardware, Software, and Information Technology (IT) .. Lesson Computer Overview.

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5. to know some basic things about the computer and the world .. Software, on the other hand, is electronic information: files, operating system, graphics. of information once recorded (or stored) in the computer, A computer system ( fig) consists of mainly four basic Basic computer Organization b. The CPU or Central Processing Unit is the brains of the computer. It controls information and tells other parts of the computer what to do. Here are a few.

A ROM, stores such instructions that are required to start a computer. This operation is referred to as bootstrap. The different types of ROM are given below.

The MROM cannot be programmed by the user. EPROM is erased by exposing it to ultra-violet light for a duration of up to 40 minutes. It can be erased and reprogrammed about ten thousand times.

Both erasing and programming take about 4 to 10 milliseconds.

Secondary Storage External Storage Devices Floppy diskettes, hard disk, tapes and optical disks come under the category of external storage devices or ancillary storage devices. These devices are very sensitive to environmental conditions humidity and temperature as well as to external magnetic fields and need to be stored carefully. Information on a floppy disk is recorded in the magnetized states of particles of iron oxides evenly placed upon concentric circles known as tracks. It contains a stack of metal platters, each coated with iron oxide, that spin on a spindle and the entire unit is encased in a sealed chamber.

C Magnetic Tape This is plastic tape, usually made of Mylar that is coated with iron oxide, thereby enabling the introduction writing ; retention memory and reading of magnetically recorded information. The best use of tape storage is for data that you do not use very often. If a peripheral device is disconnected, the computer will still be able to work; only functions performed by this peripheral device will not be available.

Here are the most used types of peripheral devices: A Keyboard The most common and very popular input device which helps in inputting data to the computer.

It consists of keys that are capable of inputting alphabets, numbers and special characters. You can also navigate using the keyboard and perform shortcut functions. B Mouse Mouse is the most popular pointing device and cursor-control device having a small palm size box with a round ball at its base which senses the movement of mouse and sends corresponding signals to CPU when the mouse buttons are pressed.

It forms images from tiny dots, called pixels that are arranged in a rectangular form. The sharpness of the image depends upon the number of pixels.

D Printer Printer is an output device, which is used to print information on paper. Impact Printers: The impact printers print the characters by striking them on the ribbon which is then pressed on the paper.

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Non-Impact Printers: Non-impact printers print the characters without using ribbon. These printers print a complete page at a time so they are also called as Page Printers.

Microphone Micro Phone is an instrument for converting sound waves into electrical energy variations which may then be amplified, transmitted, or recorded. Scanner The scanner is a device that scans documents and converts them into digital data. Webcam A webcam is a video camera connected to a computer, allowing its images to be seen by Internet users. Optical character recognition OCR Optical character recognition is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text.

Digitizer It converts analogue information into digital form. Optical Mark Reading OMR Optical Mark Readers reads pencil or pen marks made in pre-defined positions on paper forms as responses to questions or tick list prompts.

We are going to discuss the most commonly used input devices in this article. Keyboard The computer keyboard is to enter text information into the computer.

The main use of the keyboard is to type commands directing the computer to perform certain actions. Mouse A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. A mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard, flat surface. Joystick Joysticks and similar game controllers can also be connected to a computer as pointing devices Scanner A scanner is a device that images a printed page or graphics by digitizing it, producing an image made of tiny pixels of different brightness and colour values which are represented numerically and sent to the computer.

Scanners not only scan graphics, but they can also scan pages of text. Trackball The trackball is sort of like an upside-down mouse, with the ball located on top. Trackballs have the advantage over mice in that the body of the trackball remains stationary on your desk. A graphics tablet allows creating graphical images with motions and actions.

It forms images from tiny dots, known as pixels that make an arrangement in a form of a rectangular form. The sharpness of the image depends upon the number of pixels. Printers The printer is an output device, which is to print information on paper. There are two types of printers: Impact Printers Non-Impact Printers Plotters A plotter is a printer that interprets commands from a computer to make line drawings on paper with one or more automated pens.

Unlike a regular printer, the plotter can draw continuous point-to-point lines directly from vector graphics files or commands. Speakers Speakers are one of the most common output devices with computer systems. Some speakers are designed for work specifically with computers, while others can be hooked up to any type of sound system. Memory Memory is the storage space in the computer where data get the process and instructions required for processing get store.

The memory is split into a large number of small parts known as cells. Each location or cell has a unique address which varies from zero to memory size minus one. It acts as a buffer between the CPU and main memory. Primary Memory Main Memory Primary memory holds only those data and instructions on which computer is currently working. It has limited capacity and data is lost when power is switched off.

Right Alignment. Methods: 1. Direct click on alignment icon on format bar. Go to Format menu 2. Click on paragraph. Click on dropdown arrow of alignment.

Choose required one.

Go to Edit menu. Then type the required word, which you want you want to replace at find what box. Click on replace all. Click on insert 2. Some Basic Terminology: o http: hypertext markup language o www: world wide web o Kbps: Kilobyte per second o Mbps: Megabyte per second o Server: main computer in the network o Client: sub-computer that are networked to server.

Now days, internet is so popular that it becomes basic need of human beings. You can exchange any massage with people around the world by using e-mail.

Even with the multimedia excitement of the wed, electronic mail is the most frequently used application of the internet.

Many people who have access to the internet at school, and work, use the internet for no other purpose then to send and receive email. We will study this section practically. E-mail address:- E-mail address is the location of individual's mail box on the internet. Email address consists of two parts which is separated by at the rate symbol.

Receiving mail 3. Forwarding mail 4. Storing mail 5. Deleting mail 6. Printing mail There are many free e-mail service providers such as: Yahoo. There are mainly four location of inside the e-mail account. Inbox: it contains receiving mail 2. Outbox: when we send mail then it will store at outbox folder at first 3.

Basic Computing Using Windows

Deleted items: when we delete any unwanted mail them it will store at deleted items folder. Some of the common ex.

Surfing WebPages: There is a list of most popular websites till date. Over 2,,, users use these sites. Virus is a program that has been coded to cause problems on someone else computer. Viruses may cause data to be lost or corrupted. A virus is usually passed from computer on floppy disk or pen drive or internet.

Virus is defined as the program inserted into another program. It gets activated by its host program. It replicates itself and spread to other. So we go on practically. It is a family member of Ms-Office group. It also save the document for future use with revision facility. Go to file menu Click on open button Then display small dialog box.

Page Setup :- To fixed pages properties. Select required text Go to edit menu, Click on Cut or copy command Again Go to edit menu Click on paste special Choose any option Picture Click on ok Replace: - Using this command we can replace required text in selected place. Go to edit menu Click on replace command Type target text in find what criteria.

Also type required text in replace criteria Click on replace button View Menu Page Number: - This command allows adding page number on the document. Keep cursor in required place Go to insert menu Click on symbol Choose any required symbol Click on insert button Click on close button Picture :- Using this command we can insert different type of picture. Go to format menu Click on borders and shading command Choose page border tab Choose any border Click on OK Columns :- Using this command we can divide our document page into column wise.

Select your page Go to format menu Click on columns command Then display small dialog box, Choose column number click on OK Change Case :- Using this option we can change our document in different case. Select your text line Go to format menu Click on change case Choose any one case Click on OK Background :- This command is used to change background color of pages. Select required text Go to tools menu Click on word count Then display dialog with result. Protect Document: - Using this command we con not modify file only read documents.

Computer Knowledge – Basic General Computer Awareness

Go to tools menu Click on protect document Then display dialog box. Go to table menu Click on draw table Now drawing your image by using toolbars. Insert: - This command is used to insert defined table in the document. Delete: - This command is used to remove table from document.

Select table Go to table menu Click on delete Choose table Merge cells: - This command is used to join two or more cells each other. Select required cells Go to table menu Click on merge cells Formula: - This command is used to apply formula on the calculation. This application software is developed by Microsoft Corporation.

This is mostly use in display project overview, display program on monitor or projector. How to open Power Point? Select required slide Go to format menu Click on slide layout Choose any one layout what you want. Select slide Go to format menu Click on background Choose any color what you want. It manipulates and manages the database in very well manner.

Work Book: - A work book is the main document of excel. By default a work-book has three work-sheet, we can add more work-sheets. Work sheet:-A work-sheet is the working document of excel. Select required cell range Go to edit menu Click on clear Then display dialog box, Choose all to remove whole element Choose formats to remove formatting effect Choose Comments to remove comment text.Select cell range Go to edit menu Click on clear Choose all to remove whole data from cell Choose format to remove only formatting effect After define effect click on OK Delete :- Remove selected cell from sheet.

A carriage holding one or more pens is mounted horizontally across the drum. Click on Run. In , Lord Kelvin had already discussed the possible construction of such calculators, but he had been stymied by the limited output torque of the ball-and-disk integrators. This built on the mechanical integrators of James Thomson and the torque amplifiers invented by H.

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