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The challenges of urbanization in India: Towards a more humane http://www. blocwindcotssidi.cf urbanization in India over a century with emphasis on level, tempo of level, tempo of urbanization and urban morphology using Indian Census data during. Urbanization in India: Trends, Problems and Development Programmes. Introduction. That the urbanization as a process characterized by more and more.
This urbanization process has been aggravated by the urban growth of Asian continent which has a lion- share of world population. The South Asian region though predominantly rural accounted for India, the leading country in South Asia has shown an unprecedented increase in urban population in last few decades and its urban population has increased about 14 fold from to This growth is mainly uneven but not skewed and not concentrated to a single city of the country.
The state-wise distribution of large cities and million plus populous cities has been mapped across the country. The urbanization is considered as a potential demographic dividend but rapid and unplanned urbanization is creating havoc, particularly in metropolitan cities in India. The carrying capacity of cities and environmental condition is under threat due to unexpected urban growth and unplanned industrialization respectively.
The problem of slums and other infrastructure facilities can be managed through effective infrastructure planning and government initiatives. Although these analyses are based on secondary data and futuristic projection based on it has some variability as urban growth is affected by several factors, yet it makes an attempt to map the extent of distribution of urban growth across the country. Keywords: Urbanization, South Asia, Million-plus Cities, Population Projection, Migration, Exponential Growth, Pollution Index Introduction Development in the form of socio-economical, technological or environmental factors is reflected as sectoral changes in the society.
In the consequence of economic development, urbanization is one of the most apparent forms of irreversible land and social transformation. It refers to the share of the total population which is concentrated in urban settlements as well as increases its stake among total population.
An increase in its percentage implies a resulting change in socio-economical and environmental aspects of the region. Urbanization is a region specific progressive concentration of human settlements where the involvement of people is more on the secondary and tertiary sector of the economy. Generally there is huge control of cities over national economies of any country.
Urbanization leads to many changes which have direct linkage with the climate and environment such as change in land use pattern, habitation, population density, pollution, increase in energy consumption and generation of waste, etc. De and Soni, The objective of this paper is to understand the process of Indian urbanization in context of Asian and global urbanization trend. Attempt has been made to measure the extent, trend and pattern of urbanization in the country.
The secondary data of National Sample Survey NSS , Census of India data from to , state and district boundaries have been used to prepare the map of urbanization pattern of the country. The distribution of million plus populous cities, large cities and number of polluted areas across the states of the country has also been depicted. Based on the historical time-series data a projection for the state of urbanization for different states of India on has also been presented.
The natural increase of population, rural to urban migration and reclassification of settlement boundaries have contributed towards the urban growth in India.
South Asia is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Out of 10 most populous countries in the world, 6 are in Asian continent, they are China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan.
Fast urban growth in Asian cities has caused tremendous pressure on the existing infrastructure and dwindling socio-economic condition in urban settlements. This is noticeable from the existence and growth of slums and informal settlements in and around major cities. Rapid urbanization in Asia has taken place in the context of overall economic growth, in spite of the global financial crisis and the Asian crisis of the s.
The two major drivers of Asian development are urbanization and economic growth, which are interrelated. As manufacturing and modern service sectors are more productive than agriculture, particularly traditional peasant agriculture, so a shift in the sectoral composition of fast-growing Asian economies has been observed.
Countries, which were predominantly rural, have seen a significant change in economy in last few decades. In most Asian countries, the gross domestic product GDP per capita has risen much faster than the world average over the last 20 years. OECD, India though is among the top five countries in the world in terms of GDP but least urbanized among the top 10 economies of the world Chandrasekhar and Sharma, Moreover, Asia is also a major destination of foreign direct investment FDI.
Availability of manpower, lesser labour cost and huge consumer markets made Asian urban areas a favoured destination of FDI. India has the largest rural population The decennial growth rate of urban population has recorded India shares most characteristic features of urbanization in the developing countries where the rate of urbanization is faster than the developed countries.
For instance, in there were only about cities whose population was more than one lakh, now this figure has reached to and if this trend persists then it is expected that more than million people will live in Indian cities by The urban population of India has increased from There are several factors behind this 14 fold increase in urban population.
The major three components affecting rapid urbanization in India are natural population growth; reclassification of rural areas as urban; and net migration of people from rural to urban areas. The physical growth of urban areas is linked to modernization, industrialization, and setting up new industrial towns, particularly post independence period.
Many rural areas have been designated to urban areas due to the reclassification of settlement boundary based on the criteria like population size, occupation of people and population density. The third and most important factor which is affecting rapid urbanization in the country is migration of people from rural to urban areas. There are two factors commonly called pull and push factor behind this migration.
Pull factor attract people towards cities for better employment, livelihood option, amenities and infrastructure facilities. On the other hand push factor force people to migrate due to adverse circumstances. India along with other developing countries has pull factor as the major cause of urbanization.
Urbanisation in India
Among three major components of urban growth viz. This increase complements a corresponding decrease in the percentage share of net migration and reclassification of rural-urban areas. Net migration contributed about So, the urbanization in India is not only a migration led phenomena but demographic factor also played a significant role in urban progression Pathak and Mehta, The Census of India classifies the human settlement while enumerating population based on several socio-economic parameters during its census operation.
The degree or level of urbanization measures the relative number of people living in urban areas. Measures like, Percentage Urban out of total population , Percentage Rural out of total population and Urban-Rural Ratio total urban population divided by total rural population expressed in percentage are used to explain the degree of urbanization Dutta, In India the percentage of urban population has increased from The rate of growth of urban population in India has recorded a steady growth during to The sharp decline in urbanization rate during was mainly due to declassification of large number of towns during the decade.
The rate of urbanization has also shown a declining trend during and periods. Lakshadweep, Tripura and Nagaland also recorded a very high increase in urban population during the decade.
The growth rate of urban population in the hill state of Himachal Pradesh is minimum in the country. Other than state capitals and major industrial centre, large cities are mainly concentrated in the national capital region NCR , western and southern part of India Figure 3. Most of the urban growth has been caused by extension of existing towns particularly the large cities, while the pace of growth of new towns has been slow Bhasin, However as compared to other developing countries, the urban spread in India is neither skewed, nor characterized by any single city dominating the scene Anonymous, The regional distribution of urban population is mainly uneven in India.
Most of the developed states like Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra and Gujarat have registered urban growth above the national average with an exception in West Bengal, where growth rate is low due to the rural-oriented strategy followed by the state government Kundu, The level and growth of urban population in the recent decades has been concentrated mainly around big cities due to expansion of economic activities and significant increase of service sector.
People come from rural area to nearby urban areas in search of livelihood and better living condition. So, much of the urban ills are attributed to the rural-spills and the intra-state migration rates are substantially larger than the inter-state rates Mitra and Muryama, Highest growth of urban population has been recorded in the cities of Kerala during Uttar Pradesh having the highest number of large cities as well as polluted areas in the country followed by Maharashtra Table 2.
The state-wise distribution of number of polluted areas as per CEPI has been depicted in Table 2, these areas are not necessarily included in the million plus or large cities of the respective states.
Table 2: Statewise distribution of top populous cities in India based on Census and polluted areas. Thus the balancing equation for population projection Pt is the result of natural increase, net migration added to the base population. There are two method of extrapolation for future population projection viz.
However, some differences are there between the extrapolations using the linear and the exponential functions.
It is also driven by land fragmentations, villages being erased due to roads and highway constructions, dam constructions and other activities. Many farmers in different states of India are leaving farming, primarily because of high input cost and low income from agriculture.
Sustainable Urbanization in India
Also on the other hand with usage of fertilizers, chemicals and hybrid seeds, land fertility is declining. This encourages many farmers to commit suicide. As per the figures given by central government in , there were farmer suicides. This includes 8, farmers-cultivators and 4, agricultural labourers . Thus people including farmers are migrating to cities. Consequences of urbanization in India[ edit ] Crowded housing and polluted waterway in Mumbai Rapid rise in urban population, in India, is leading to many problems like increasing slums, decrease in standard of living in urban areas , also causing environmental damage.
India's urban growth rate is 2. India has around million people living in metropolitan areas. Water lines, roads and electricity are lacking in quality, resulting in a decline of living standards.
It is also contributing to the issues presented by pollution. Networks of friends and family become support systems during the initial transformation phase and the struggle to find work in a fast-paced environment. Their struggles may take months, or even years, to adjust to the new surrounds in order to find a stable job. Migrants are responsible for supporting both themselves in the city and the family left at home.
Some of the positive effects resulting from rural to urban migration occur in the agrarian communities from which migrants came.
Family members left at home, usually the elderly and young, are eased out of financial pressures as their relatives work to provide higher standards of living for their dependants.So, the urbanization in India is not only a migration led phenomena but demographic factor also played a significant role in urban progression Pathak and Mehta, Skip to main content.
The sharp decline in urbanization rate during was mainly due to declassification of large number of towns during the decade.
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Managing urban areas has become one of the most important development challenges of the 21st century. Negative effects i. The rate of urbanization has also shown a declining trend during and periods.